Dental Caries on Deciduous Teeth: Classification and Treatment
The following forms of caries are distinguished in dentistry: incipient (spot lesions), superficial, medium and deep. The course of caries can be acute and chronic. The development of caries is primarily induced by local factors, such as dental plaque and simple sugars, which are a growth medium for microorganisms. There is a so-called “baby bottle caries” of deciduous teeth that can be found in children up to 12-18 months. It develops owing to the fact that babies fall asleep with bottles filled with sweet compotes and various milk porridges with too much sugar content. One of the preventive measures from the “baby bottle caries” is to give the children to drink either fennel tea or water after meals, and wipe the tooth rows with a piece of gauze bandage wound on the index finger.
Early detection of caries can simplify and facilitate treatment. It is important to remember that in later stages of caries development, the infection (microorganisms) can be in close contact with the pulp, which may lead to another disease – pulpitis. To prevent any complications, you should follow preventive measures including dental remineralization that will increase the enamel resistance to tooth decay. You can also enrich the teeth with fluoride, applying special varnishes and gels that can help to avoid the formation of chalky stains and strengthen enamel. Another way to prevent tooth decay is to seal fissures, natural elongated grooves on the chewing surfaces of teeth. A preventive method – invasive or non-invasive sealing – should be chosen according to the type of fissure.
Tooth Filling in Children
Certainly, filling teeth in children requires anesthesia. Caries treatment is carried out with anesthesia either by means of computer anesthesia STA, or using sedation.
Stages of Tooth Restoration:
- preparation of hard dental tissues;
- installation of a cofferdam (a rubber dam) to isolate the carious cavity from the moist environment of the oral cavity and to eliminate the risk of aspiration of dental instruments;
- setting photopolymer restoration;
- grinding and polishing a filling.
During the procedure, a child can watch cartoons on the screen in order to be distracted from dental procedures.
The temporary teeth restoration is as important as the restoration of permanent teeth. Timely restoration may influence the speech development, diction, type of occlusion, asthetics and psychological comfort of a child.
Restoration Methods Used for Milk Teeth
1. The direct method is the restoration of a fractured or cracked tooth by photopolymer composites.
2. The indirect method is the restoration of the anatomical form of a tooth using crowns.
Root Canal Treatment of Deciduous Teeth
Pulp is mainly a neurovascular tissue filling a dental cavity. The pulp contains many nerve endings and vessels that nourish the tooth. It is conventionally divided into crown and root parts.
Root canal treatment of milk teeth can be carried out in two ways:
1. Amputation. Only the coronal part is removed, and a pulp cap with antiseptic solutions is applied to root canal orifices.
2. Extirpation. Complete removal of both crown and root parts of the pulp. After pulp extraction, root canals are enlarged by special instruments with antiseptic solutions. Root canal filling is the final stage. The selection of filling materials depends on the stage of formation, stabilization or resorption of a temporary tooth root.